They think and act as a Collective thanks to subspace communications present as a net between them. Their purpose is to improve themselves by assimilating the other life-forms.
They`re totally rational: there are no emotions in the Collective. This rationality can be seen in the shape of their ships: they are huge cubes and are almost indestructible; they are vulnerable at the highest EM band, but they quickly adapt to these frequencies. They are able to produce superabundant energy, so they can work even if the 78 percent of the ship is inoperative. They can use impulse speed, warp speed and their special speed known as "Transwarp Speed".
In "Descent", however, we see a new type of ship, which is not symmetrical but very huge, just like the cube vessels. This change of shape seems to be a reaction to the Borg`s new individuality, but it may just be an improvement of the Borg technologies.
It is almost certain that the Borg Homeworld is in the delta quadrant. The Starfleet thinks that the Borg drones grow as normal humanoids in the first period of their life. Then they are implanted cybernetical parts and are finally put to their place in the Collective. Each Borg has different devices on his body, so each one has a different job in the Borg society. It is supposed that the Borg are able to make their drones grow to adult beings within months. We do not know how many years a Borg life is long. The Collective is not able to disconnect one Borg from the others in normal situations: it would be like disconnecting one arm, we can`t do it. But if a Borg is injured, he immediately disintegrates leaving nothing to the Collective`s enemies` scientists.
The Borg collective consciousness is divided in sub-commands: defense, communication, navigation. Main commands are protected with an access password.
I heard a Borg saying "I"; what`s the matter?
Have for sure you`ve just met an individual Borg. A small part of the Borg became individuals as Hugh came back to his ship. His individuality affected his companions and they acquired emotions, too; Hugh took the leadership of the Renegade Borg after Lore`s defeat.
But in "The Best of Both Worlds" Locutus-Picard often says "I": why?
There is only an answer: the assimilation process is gradual and Locutus wasn`t completely connected to the Collective.
Why do we never see Ferengi Borgs, Cardassian Borgs and so on?
Maybe the Borg only assimilate humanoids. A human brain is ok to be assimilated; a Ferengi`s one probably isn`t. However, I`ll not astonish if I see a Klingon Borg or something similar in the next TNG movie! There's another possibility: maybe the assimilation process makes all the races similar.
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